Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two In , Simon & Schuster published Juliet's Nurse, a novel by historian and former college professor Lois M. Leveen imagining the fourteen years. An electric debut novel about love, addiction, and loss; the story of two girls and the feral year that will cost one her life, and define the other's for decades. When I saw Romeo & Juliet in the theatre -- on its opening weekend -- after the film in the lobby I saw dozens of teenaged girls sobbing in each other's arms.
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Romeo and Juliet. by William Shakespeare. Read Romeo and Juliet online here for free. William Shakespeare eBooks can be downloadd at reobardhariho.cf for. Volume III Book IX. 5. Romeo and Juliet. PROLOGUE. Two households, both alike in dignity,. In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,. From ancient grudge break. Free download of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. Read, write reviews and more.
Others Friar Laurence is a Franciscan friar and Romeo's confidant.
Friar John is sent to deliver Friar Laurence's letter to Romeo. An Apothecary who reluctantly sells Romeo poison. A Chorus reads a prologue to each of the first two acts. Oil on canvas, The play, set in Verona , Italy , begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet servants who, like their masters, are sworn enemies.
Prince Escalus of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Later, Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter Juliet , but Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball. Lady Capulet and Juliet's nurse try to persuade Juliet to accept Paris's courtship.
Meanwhile, Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo , Montague's son, about Romeo's recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline , one of Capulet's nieces.
Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio , Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. However, Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet. Juliet's cousin, Tybalt , is enraged at Romeo for sneaking into the ball but is only stopped from killing Romeo by Juliet's father, who does not wish to shed blood in his house.
After the ball, in what is now called the "balcony scene", Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and overhears Juliet at her window vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues. Romeo makes himself known to her and they agree to be married.
With the help of Friar Laurence , who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are secretly married the next day. Tybalt, meanwhile, still incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him to a duel.
Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Mercutio is offended by Tybalt's insolence, as well as Romeo's "vile submission",  and accepts the duel on Romeo's behalf. Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight.
Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo confronts and slays Tybalt. Benvolio argues that Romeo has justly executed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio. The Prince, now having lost a kinsman in the warring families' feud, exiles Romeo from Verona, under penalty of death if he ever returns.
Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber, where they consummate their marriage.
Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride".
Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a potion that will put her into a deathlike coma for "two and forty hours". On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt.
The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, Romeo learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant, Balthasar.
Heartbroken, Romeo downloads poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris.
Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, discovering that Romeo is dead, stabs herself with his dagger and joins him in death. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers". The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. Romeo and Juliet borrows from a tradition of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity.
One of these is Pyramus and Thisbe , from Ovid 's Metamorphoses , which contains parallels to Shakespeare's story: the lovers' parents despise each other, and Pyramus falsely believes his lover Thisbe is dead. History records the name of the family Montague as being lent to such a political party in Verona , but that of the Capulets as from a Cremonese family, both of whom play out their conflict in Lombardy as a whole rather than within the confines of Verona.
The earliest known version of the Romeo and Juliet tale akin to Shakespeare's play is the story of Mariotto and Gianozza by Masuccio Salernitano , in the 33rd novel of his Il Novellino published in His version of the story includes the secret marriage, the colluding friar, the fray where a prominent citizen is killed, Mariotto's exile, Gianozza's forced marriage, the potion plot, and the crucial message that goes astray.
In this version, Mariotto is caught and beheaded and Gianozza dies of grief. The next morning, the Savorgnans led an attack on the city , and many members of the Strumieri were murdered.
When years later, half-paralyzed from a battle-wound, he wrote Giulietta e Romeo in Montorso Vicentino from where he could see the "castles" of Verona , he dedicated the novella to bellisima e leggiadra madonna Lucina Savorgnan.
Da Porto gave Romeo and Juliet most of its modern form, including the names of the lovers, the rival families of Montecchi and Capuleti, and the location in Verona. Da Porto originated the remaining basic elements of the story: the feuding families, Romeo — left by his mistress — meeting Giulietta at a dance at her house, the love scenes including the balcony scene , the periods of despair, Romeo killing Giulietta's cousin Tebaldo , and the families' reconciliation after the lovers' suicides.
Bandello lengthened and weighed down the plot while leaving the storyline basically unchanged though he did introduce Benvolio. Boaistuau adds much moralising and sentiment, and the characters indulge in rhetorical outbursts. Romeo and Juliet is a dramatisation of Brooke's translation, and Shakespeare follows the poem closely but adds extra detail to both major and minor characters in particular the Nurse and Mercutio.
Juliet's nurse refers to an earthquake she says occurred 11 years ago. Other earthquakes—both in England and in Verona—have been proposed in support of the different dates. These are referred to as Q1 and Q2. The first printed edition, Q1, appeared in early , printed by John Danter.
Because its text contains numerous differences from the later editions, it is labelled a so-called ' bad quarto '; the 20th-century editor T. Spencer described it as "a detestable text, probably a reconstruction of the play from the imperfect memories of one or two of the actors", suggesting that it had been pirated for publication. Alternative theories are that some or all of 'the bad quartos' are early versions by Shakespeare or abbreviations made either for Shakespeare's company or for other companies.
It was printed in by Thomas Creede and published by Cuthbert Burby. Q2 is about lines longer than Q1. Scholars believe that Q2 was based on Shakespeare's pre-performance draft called his foul papers since there are textual oddities such as variable tags for characters and "false starts" for speeches that were presumably struck through by the author but erroneously preserved by the typesetter.
It is a much more complete and reliable text and was reprinted in Q3 , Q4 and Q5. Pope began a tradition of editing the play to add information such as stage directions missing in Q2 by locating them in Q1.
This tradition continued late into the Romantic period. Fully annotated editions first appeared in the Victorian period and continue to be produced today, printing the text of the play with footnotes describing the sources and culture behind the play.
Proposals for a main theme include a discovery by the characters that human beings are neither wholly good nor wholly evil, but instead are more or less alike,  awaking out of a dream and into reality, the danger of hasty action, or the power of tragic fate. None of these have widespread support.
However, even if an overall theme cannot be found it is clear that the play is full of several small, thematic elements that intertwine in complex ways. Several of those most often debated by scholars are discussed below.
Juliet Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss. Since it is such an obvious subject of the play, several scholars have explored the language and historical context behind the romance of the play. By using metaphors of saints and sins, Romeo was able to test Juliet's feelings for him in a non-threatening way.
This method was recommended by Baldassare Castiglione whose works had been translated into English by this time. He pointed out that if a man used a metaphor as an invitation, the woman could pretend she did not understand him, and he could retreat without losing honour. Juliet, however, participates in the metaphor and expands on it. The religious metaphors of "shrine", "pilgrim", and "saint" were fashionable in the poetry of the time and more likely to be understood as romantic rather than blasphemous, as the concept of sainthood was associated with the Catholicism of an earlier age.
In the later balcony scene, Shakespeare has Romeo overhear Juliet's soliloquy, but in Brooke's version of the story, her declaration is done alone. By bringing Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop, Shakespeare breaks from the normal sequence of courtship.
Usually, a woman was required to be modest and shy to make sure that her suitor was sincere, but breaking this rule serves to speed along the plot. The lovers are able to skip courting and move on to plain talk about their relationship— agreeing to be married after knowing each other for only one night.
Romeo and Juliet's love seems to be expressing the "Religion of Love" view rather than the Catholic view. Another point is that although their love is passionate, it is only consummated in marriage, which keeps them from losing the audience's sympathy.
Throughout the story, both Romeo and Juliet, along with the other characters, fantasise about it as a dark being , often equating it with a lover.
Capulet, for example, when he first discovers Juliet's faked death, describes it as having deflowered his daughter. Right before her suicide, she grabs Romeo's dagger, saying "O happy dagger! This is thy sheath. There rust, and let me die. Shylock is a Jewish moneylender. Antonio is a merchant in Venice.
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Email I want Free eBooks Already a member? Login here Membership requires a valid email address. Sign up here. Book Description The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet first published is a play by William Shakespeare concerning the fate of two young star-crossed lovers. Reader Reviews. Add a comment: You need to login to post a comment. Other books by author Jul